Nod32 user/pass 2005 marc-apr serial key or number

Nod32 user/pass 2005 marc-apr serial key or number

Nod32 user/pass 2005 marc-apr serial key or number

Nod32 user/pass 2005 marc-apr serial key or number

Android (operating system)

Commercial logo as used by Google, since 2019
Android 11 home screen with Pixel Launcher
DeveloperVarious (mostly Google and the Open Handset Alliance)
Written inJava (UI), C (core), C++ and others[1]
OS familyUnix-like (Modified Linux kernel)
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen source (most devices include proprietary components, such as Google Play)
Initial releaseSeptember 23, 2008; 12 years ago (2008-09-23)[2]
Latest releaseAndroid 11 / September 8, 2020; 17 days ago (2020-09-08)[3]
Repository
Marketing targetSmartphones, tablet computers, smart TVs (Android TV), Android Auto and smartwatches (Wear OS)
Available in100+ languages[4]
Update methodOver-the-air
Package managerAPK-based
Platforms64-bit (32-bit being dropped) ARM, x86 and x86-64
Kernel typeLinux kernel
UserlandBionic libc,[5]mksh shell,[6]Toybox as core utilities (beginning with Android 6.0)[7][8]
Default user interfaceGraphical (multi-touch)
License
Official websitewww.android.com
Articles in the series
Android version history

Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android is developed by a consortium of developers known as the Open Handset Alliance and commercially sponsored by Google. It was unveiled in November 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008.

It is free and open source software; its source code is known as Android Open Source Project (AOSP), which is primarily licensed under the Apache License. However most Android devices ship with additional proprietary software pre-installed,[10] most notably Google Mobile Services (GMS)[11] which includes core apps such as Google Chrome, the digital distribution platform Google Play and associated Google Play Services development platform. About 70 percent of Android smartphones run Google's ecosystem;[12] competing Android ecosystems and forks include Fire OS (developed by Amazon) or LineageOS. However the "Android" name and logo are trademarks of Google which impose standards to restrict "uncertified" devices outside their ecosystem to use Android branding.[13][14]

The source code has been used to develop variants of Android on a range of other electronics, such as game consoles, digital cameras, portable media players, PCs and others, each with a specialized user interface. Some well known derivatives include Android TV for televisions and Wear OS for wearables, both developed by Google. Software packages on Android, which use the APK format, are generally distributed through proprietary application stores like Google Play Store, Samsung Galaxy Store, and Huawei AppGallery, or open source platforms like Aptoide or F-Droid.

Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013. As of May 2017[update], it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, and as of August 2020[update], the Google Play Store features over 3 million apps.[15] The current stable version is Android 11, released on September 8, 2020.

History

First Android logotype (2007–2014)
Second Android logotype (2014–2019)
Third Android logotype (2019–present)

Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White.[16][17] Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".[17] The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, and this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004.[18] The company then decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, and by five months later it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile.[18][19]

Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, and Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, and shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, and has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, and I wanted to help Andy."[20][21]

In July 2005,[17]Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million.[22] Its key employees, including Rubin, Miner and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition.[17] Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.[17] At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system.[23] Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation".[attribution needed][24]

Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006.[25] An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTYkeyboard, but the arrival of 2007's AppleiPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board".[26][27] Google later changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot completely replace physical buttons".[28] By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, and Android's focus eventually switched to just touchscreens. The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream, also known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008.[29][30]

HTC Dream or T-Mobile G1, the first commercially released device running Android (2008)

On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first truly open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices".[31][32][33] Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter also developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.[34][35]

Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases. Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut", "Eclair", and "Froyo", in that order. During its announcement of Android KitKat in 2013, Google explained that "Since these devices make our lives so sweet, each Android version is named after a dessert", although a Google spokesperson told CNN in an interview that "It's kind of like an internal team thing, and we prefer to be a little bit — how should I say — a bit inscrutable in the matter, I'll say".[36]

In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices, a lineup in which Google partnered with different device manufacturers to produce new devices and introduce new Android versions. The series was described as having "played a pivotal role in Android's history by introducing new software iterations and hardware standards across the board", and became known for its "bloat-free" software with "timely ... updates".[37] At its developer conference in May 2013, Google announced a special version of the Samsung Galaxy S4, where, instead of using Samsung's own Android customization, the phone ran "stock Android" and was promised to receive new system updates fast.[38] The device would become the start of the Google Play edition program, and was followed by other devices, including the HTC One Google Play edition,[39] and Moto G Google Play edition.[40] In 2015, Ars Technica wrote that "Earlier this week, the last of the Google Play edition Android phones in Google's online storefront were listed as "no longer available for sale" and that "Now they're all gone, and it looks a whole lot like the program has wrapped up".[41][42]

From 2008 to 2013, Hugo Barra served as product spokesperson, representing Android at press conferences and Google I/O, Google's annual developer-focused conference. He left Google in August 2013 to join Chinese phone maker Xiaomi.[43][44] Less than six months earlier, Google's then-CEOLarry Page announced in a blog post that Andy Rubin had moved from the Android division to take on new projects at Google, and that Sundar Pichai would become the new Android lead.[45][46] Pichai himself would eventually switch positions, becoming the new CEO of Google in August 2015 following the company's restructure into the Alphabet conglomerate,[47][48] making Hiroshi Lockheimer the new head of Android.[49][50]

In June 2014, Google announced Android One, a set of "hardware reference models" that would "allow [device makers] to easily create high-quality phones at low costs", designed for consumers in developing countries.[51][52][53] In September, Google announced the first set of Android One phones for release in India.[54][55] However, Recode reported in June 2015 that the project was "a disappointment", citing "reluctant consumers and manufacturing partners" and "misfires from the search company that has never quite cracked hardware".[56] Plans to relaunch Android One surfaced in August 2015,[57] with Africa announced as the next location for the program a week later.[58][59] A report from The Information in January 2017 stated that Google is expanding its low-cost Android One program into the United States, although The Verge notes that the company will presumably not produce the actual devices itself.[60][61]

Google introduced the Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones in October 2016, marketed as being the first phones made by Google,[62][63] and exclusively featured certain software features, such as the Google Assistant, before wider rollout.[64][65] The Pixel phones replaced the Nexus series,[66] with a new generation of Pixel phones launched in October 2017.[67]

In May 2019, the operating system became entangled in the trade war between China and the United States involving Huawei which like many other tech firms have become dependent on access to the Android platform.[68][69] In the summer of 2019, Huawei announced it would create an alternative operating system to Android[70][71] known as Harmony OS,[72] and have filed for intellectual property rights across major global markets.[73][74] Huawei does not currently have any plans to replace Android in the near future, as Harmony OS is designed for internet of things devices, rather than for smartphones.[75]

On August 22, 2019, it was announced that Android "Q" would officially be branded as Android 10, ending the historic practice of naming major versions after desserts. Google stated that these names were not "inclusive" to international users (due either to the aforementioned foods not being internationally known, or being difficult to pronounce in some languages).[76][77] On the same day, Android Police reported that Google had commissioned a statue of a giant number "10" to be installed in the lobby of the developers' new office.[78] Android 10 was released on September 3, 2019 to Google Pixel phones first.

Features

Interface

English: Android 10 home screen on Motorola G7

Android's default user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard.[79]Game controllers and full-size physical keyboards are supported via Bluetooth or USB.[80][81] The response to user input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback to the user. Internal hardware, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented,[82] or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel.[83]

Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information "hub" on Android devices, analogous to the desktop found on personal computers. Android homescreens are typically made up of app icons and widgets; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content, such as a weather forecast, the user's email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the homescreen.[84] A homescreen may be made up of several pages, between which the user can swipe back and forth.[85] Third-party apps available on Google Play and other app stores can extensively re-theme the homescreen,[86] and even mimic the look of other operating systems, such as Windows Phone.[87] Most manufacturers customize the look and features of their Android devices to differentiate themselves from their competitors.[88]

English: all sorts of Android widgets. email/message, app shortcut, music miniplayer , search bar and information bar

Along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates.[85] Notifications are "short, timely, and relevant information about your app when it's not in use", and when tapped, users are directed to a screen inside the app relating to the notification.[89] Beginning with Android 4.1 "Jelly Bean", "expandable notifications" allow the user to tap an icon on the notification in order for it to expand and display more information and possible app actions right from the notification.[90]

Notification tray displaying both active and silent notifications

An All Apps screen lists all installed applications, with the ability for users to drag an app from the list onto the home screen. A Recents screen lets users switch between recently used apps.[85]

Recent apps on Android 10 (Motorola g7). apps are Wikimedia commons and Wikipedia

Applications

Many, to almost all, Android devices come with preinstalled Google apps including Gmail, Google Maps, Google Chrome, YouTube, Google Play Music, Google Play Movies & TV, and many more.

Applications ("apps"), which extend the functionality of devices (and must be 64-bit[91]), are written using the Android software development kit (SDK)[92] and, often, Kotlin programming language, which replaced Java as Google's preferred language for Android app development in May 2019,[93] and was originally announced in May 2017.[94][95] Java is still supported (originally the only option for user-space programs, and is often mixed with Kotlin), as is C++.[96] Java and/or other JVM languages, such as Kotlin, may be combined with C/C++,[97] together with a choice of non-default runtimes that allow better C++ support.[98] The Go programming language is also supported, although with a limited set of application programming interfaces (API).[99]

The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools,[100] including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. Initially, Google's supported integrated development environment (IDE) was Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin; in December 2014, Google released Android Studio, based on IntelliJ IDEA, as its primary IDE for Android application development. Other development tools are available, including a native development kit (NDK) for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks. In January 2014, Google unveiled a framework based on Apache Cordova for porting ChromeHTML 5web applications to Android, wrapped in a native application shell.[101] Additionally, Firebase was acquired by Google in 2014 that provides helpful tools for app and web developers.[102][103]

Android has a growing selection of third-party applications, which can be acquired by users by downloading and installing the application's APK (Android application package) file, or by downloading them using an application store program that allows users to install, update, and remove applications from their devices. Google Play Store is the primary application store installed on Android devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements and license the Google Mobile Services software.[104][105] Google Play Store allows users to browse, download and update applications published by Google and third-party developers; as of August 2020[update], there are more than three million applications available for Android in Play Store.[15][106] As of July 2013[update], 50 billion applications have been installed.[107][108] Some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the user's monthly bill.[109] As of May 2017[update], there are over one billion active users a month for Gmail, Android, Chrome, Google Play and Maps.

Due to the open nature of Android, a number of third-party application marketplaces also exist for Android, either to provide a substitute for devices that are not allowed to ship with Google Play Store, provide applications that cannot be offered on Google Play Store due to policy violations, or for other reasons. Examples of these third-party stores have included the Amazon Appstore, GetJar, and SlideMe. F-Droid, another alternative marketplace, seeks to only provide applications that are distributed under free and open sourcelicenses.[104][110][111][112]

Memory management

Since Android devices are usually battery-powered, Android is designed to manage processes to keep power consumption at a minimum. When an application is not in use the system suspends its operation so that, while available for immediate use rather than closed, it does not use battery power or CPU resources.[113][114] Android manages the applications stored in memory automatically: when memory is low, the system will begin invisibly and automatically closing inactive processes, starting with those that have been inactive for the longest amount of time.[115][116] Lifehacker reported in 2011 that third-party task killer applications were doing more harm than good.[117]

Hardware

The main hardware platform for Android is ARM (the ARMv7 and ARMv8-A architectures), with x86 and x86-64 architectures also officially supported in later versions of Android.[118][119][120][121] The unofficial Android-x86 project provided support for x86 architectures ahead of the official support.[122][123] The ARMv5TE and MIPS32/64 architectures were also historically supported but removed in later Android releases.[124] Since 2012, Android devices with Intel processors began to appear, including phones[125] and tablets. While gaining support for 64-bit platforms, Android was first made to run on 64-bit x86 and then on ARM64. Since Android 5.0 "Lollipop", 64-bit variants of all platforms are supported in addition to the 32-bit variants.[118]

Requirements for the minimum amount of RAM for devices running Android 7.1 range from in practice 2 GB for best hardware, down to 1 GB for the most common screen, to absolute minimum 512 MB for the lowest spec 32-bit smartphone. The recommendation for Android 4.4 is to have at least 512 MB of RAM,[126] while for "low RAM" devices 340 MB is the required minimum amount that does not include memory dedicated to various hardware components such as the baseband processor.[127] Android 4.4 requires a 32-bitARMv7, MIPS or x86 architecture processor (latter two through unofficial ports),[122][123] together with an OpenGL ES 2.0 compatible graphics processing unit (GPU).[128] Android supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, 3.1 and 3.2 and since Android 7.0 Vulkan (and version 1.1 available for some devices[129]). Some applications may explicitly require a certain version of the OpenGL ES, and suitable GPU hardware is required to run such applications.[128]

Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, GPS, orientation sensors, dedicated gaming controls, accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, proximity sensors, pressure sensors, thermometers, and touchscreens. Some hardware components are not required, but became standard in certain classes of devices, such as smartphones, and additional requirements apply if they are present. Some other hardware was initially required, but those requirements have been relaxed or eliminated altogether. For example, as Android was developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as microphones were required, while over time the phone function became optional.[108] Android used to require an autofocus camera, which was relaxed to a fixed-focus camera[108] if present at all, since the camera was dropped as a requirement entirely when Android started to be used on set-top boxes.

In addition to running on smartphones and tablets, several vendors run Android natively on regular PC hardware with a keyboard and mouse.[130][131][132][133] In addition to their availability on commercially available hardware, similar PC hardware-friendly versions of Android are freely available from the Android-x86 project, including customized Android 4.4.[134] Using the Android emulator that is part of the Android SDK, or third-party emulators, Android can also run non-natively on x86 architectures.[135][136] Chinese companies are building a PC and mobile operating system, based on Android, to "compete directly with Microsoft Windows and Google Android".[137] The Chinese Academy of Engineering noted that "more than a dozen" companies were customising Android following a Chinese ban on the use of Windows 8 on government PCs.[138][139][140]

Development

The stack of Android Open Source Project

Android is developed by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available to the Android Open Source Project (AOSP),[141] an open source initiative led by Google.[142] The AOSP code can be found without modification on select devices, mainly the former Nexus and current Android One series of devices.[143]

The source code is, in turn, customized by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to run on their hardware.[144][145] Android's source code does not contain the device drivers, often proprietary, that are needed for certain hardware components.[146] As a result, most Android devices, including Google's own, ship with a combination of free and open source and proprietary software, with the software required for accessing Google services falling into the latter category.

Update schedule

Google announces major incremental upgrades to Android on a yearly basis.[147] The updates can be installed on devices over-the-air.[148] The latest major release is Android 10.

The extensive variation of hardware[149] in Android devices has caused significant delays for software upgrades and security patches. Each upgrade has had to be specifically tailored, a time- and resource-consuming process.[150] Except for devices within the Google Nexus and Pixel brands, updates have often arrived months after the release of the new version, or not at all.[151] Manufacturers often prioritize their newest devices and leave old ones behind.[152] Additional delays can be introduced by wireless carriers who, after receiving updates from manufacturers, further customize Android to their needs and conduct extensive testing on their networks before sending out the upgrade.[152][153] There are also situations in which upgrades are impossible due to a manufacturer not updating necessary drivers.[154]

The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media.[155][156][157] Some commentators have noted that the industry has a financial incentive not to upgrade their devices, as the lack of updates for existing devices fuels the purchase of newer ones,[158] an attitude described as "insulting".[157]The Guardian complained that the method of distribution for updates is complicated only because manufacturers and carriers have designed it that way.[157] In 2011, Google partnered with a number of industry players to announce an "Android Update Alliance", pledging to deliver timely updates for every device for 18 months after its release; however, there has not been another official word about that alliance since its announcement.[152][159]

In 2012, Google began de-coupling certain aspects of the operating system (particularly its central applications) so they could be updated through the Google Play store independently of the OS. One of those components, Google Play Services, is a closed-source system-level process providing APIs for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running Android 2.2 "Froyo" and higher. With these changes, Google can add new system functions and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself.[160] As a result, Android 4.2 and 4.3 "Jelly Bean" contained relatively fewer user-facing changes, focusing more on minor changes and platform improvements.[161]

HTC's then-executive Jason Mackenzie called monthly security updates "unrealistic" in 2015, and Google was trying to persuade carriers to exclude security patches from the full testing procedures. In May 2016, Bloomberg Businessweek reported that Google was making efforts to keep Android more up-to-date, including accelerated rates of security updates, rolling out technological workarounds, reducing requirements for phone testing, and ranking phone makers in an attempt to "shame" them into better behavior. As stated by Bloomberg: "As smartphones get more capable, complex and hackable, having the latest software work closely with the hardware is increasingly important". Hiroshi Lockheimer, the Android lead, admitted that "It's not an ideal situation", further commenting that the lack of updates is "the weakest link on security on Android". Wireless carriers were described in the report as the "most challenging discussions", due to their slow approval time while testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including Verizon Wireless and Sprint Corporation, already shortening their approval times. In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public.[when?] Mike Chan, co-founder of phone maker Nextbit and former Android developer, said that "The best way to solve this problem is a massive re-architecture of the operating system", "or Google could invest in training manufacturers and carriers 'to be good Android citizens'".[162][163][164]

In May 2017, with the announcement of Android 8.0, Google introduced Project Treble, a major re-architect of the Android OS framework designed to make it easier, faster, and less costly for manufacturers to update devices to newer versions of Android. Project Treble separates the vendor implementation (device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers) from the Android OS framework via a new "vendor interface". In Android 7.0 and earlier, no formal vendor interface exists, so device makers must update large portions of the Android code to move a device to a newer version of the operating system. With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, "without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers."[165]

In September 2017, Google's Project Treble team revealed that, as part of their efforts to improve the security lifecycle of Android devices, Google had managed to get the Linux Foundation to agree to extend the support lifecycle of the Linux Long-Term Support (LTS) kernel branch from the 2 years that it has historically lasted to 6 years for future versions of the LTS kernel, starting with Linux kernel 4.4.[166]

In May 2019, with the announcement of Android 10, Google introduced Project Mainline to simplify and expedite delivery of updates to the Android ecosystem. Project Mainline enables updates to core OS components through the Google Play Store. As a result, important security and performance improvements that previously needed to be part of full OS updates can be downloaded and installed as easily as an app update.[167]

Linux kernel

Android's kernel is based on the Linux kernel's long-term support (LTS) branches. As of 2020[update], Android uses versions 4.4, 4.9 or 4.14 of the Linux kernel.[168] The actual kernel depends on the individual device.[169]

Android's variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like device trees, ashmem, ION, and different out of memory (OOM) handling.[170][171] Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power management feature called "wakelocks",[172] were initially rejected by mainline kernel developers partly because they felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain its own code.[173][174] Google announced in April 2010 that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community,[175] but Greg Kroah-Hartman, the current Linux kernel maintainer for the stable branch, said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux.[174] Google engineer Patrick Brady once stated in the company's developer conference that "Android is not Linux",[176] with Computerworld adding that "Let me make it simple for you, without Linux, there is no Android".[177]Ars Technica wrote that "Although Android is built on top of the Linux kernel, the platform has very little in common with the conventional desktop Linux stack".[176]

In August 2011, Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years".[178] In December 2011, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of Android Mainlining Project, which aims to put some Android drivers, patches and features back into the Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.3.[179] Linux included the autosleep and wakelocks capabilities in the 3.5 kernel, after many previous attempts at merger. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: to memory (the traditional suspend that Android uses), and to disk (hibernate, as it is known on the desktop).[180] Google maintains a public code repository that contains their experimental work to re-base Android off the latest stable Linux versions.[181][182]

The flash storage on Android devices is split into several partitions, such as for the operating system itself, and for user data and application installations.[183] In contrast to desktop Linux distributions, Android device owners are not given root access to the operating system and sensitive partitions such as /system are read-only. However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.[184]

Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation,[185] Google's open-source chief Chris DiBona,[186] and several journalists.[187][188] Others, such as Google engineer Patrick Brady, say that Android is not Linux in the traditional Unix-like Linux distribution sense; Android does not include the GNU C Library (it uses Bionic as an alternative C library) and some of other components typically found in Linux distributions.[189]

With the release of Android Oreo in 2017, Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4.4 or newer, for security reasons. Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule.[190][191]

Software stack

Android's architecture diagram

On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware, libraries and APIs written in C, and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries. Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of Android's other source code projects.

Android uses Android Runtime (ART) as its runtime environment (introduced in version 4.4), which uses ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation to entirely compile the application bytecode into machine code upon the installation of an application. In Android 4.4, ART was an experimental feature and not enabled by default; it became the only runtime option in the next major version of Android, 5.0.[192] In versions no longer supported, until version 5.0 when ART took over, Android previously used Dalvik as a process virtual machine with trace-based just-in-time (JIT) compilation to run Dalvik "dex-code" (Dalvik Executable), which is usually translated from the Java bytecode. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments ("traces") each time an application is launched.[193][194][195] For its Java library, the Android platform uses a subset of the now discontinued Apache Harmony project.[196] In December 2015, Google announced that the next version of Android would switch to a Java implementation based on the OpenJDK project.[197]

Android's standard C library, Bionic, was developed by Google specifically for Android, as a derivation of the BSD's standard C library code. Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel. The main benefits of using Bionic instead of the GNU C Library (glibc) or uClibc are its smaller runtime footprint, and optimization for low-frequency CPUs. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence, which Google finds more suitable for the Android's overall licensing model.[195]

Aiming for a different licensing model, toward the end of 2012, Google switched the Bluetooth stack in Android from the GPL-licensed BlueZ to the Apache-licensed BlueDroid.[198]

Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. This made it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android,[189] until version r5 of the Android Native Development Kit brought support for applications written completely in C or C++.[199] Libraries written in C may also be used in applications by injection of a small shim and usage of the JNI.

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The Best CEO Quotes Of 2020 (So Far)

Here are the most important quotes from tech‘s biggest leaders that best encapsulate the important happenings and trends of 2020 so far.

Emerging IT Vendors You Need To Know In 2020

In our annual Emerging Vendors special report, CRN shines a light on some of the most exciting new channel-focused vendors helping create new solutions for business and opportunity for solution providers.

The 2020 Fast Growth 150

CRN‘s Fast Growth 150 ranks solution providers with gross annual sales of at least $1 million by their two-year growth rate.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Preparing For A Permanently Changed Solution Sale

The Channel Company‘s Executive Chairman Robert Faletra says in a post-coronavirus world, there are two new and likely environments many businesses will find themselves in.


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FEATURES

The 2020 Rising Female Stars Of The IT Channel

CRN celebrates the tireless efforts and endless dedication of the 100 women on our inaugural Rising Female Stars list. These individuals are front and center in making the channel the force it is today.

2020 Rising Female Stars: Solution Provider Keys To Success For 2020

What advice do our Rising Female Stars have for their solution providers? Here’s what a few of them had to say about defining value, selling with empathy and focusing on hot technologies like 5G, artificial intelligence and hybrid cloud.

2020 Rising Female Stars: How To Turn ‘Challenges’ Into ‘Opportunities’ For Positive Change

Mettacool co-founder Natalie Eicher spoke with CRN about a number of issues facing women in the workplace today, from insecurities about networking and self-promotion to the impacts of the “Me Too” movement.


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FEATURES

Cover Story: The New Channel Normal: How Solution Providers Are Adapting In The Midst Of Coronavirus

In the midst of the global coronavirus crisis, solution providers are transforming the way they do business even as they work to keep locked-down customers humming and uncover new paths to growth.

10 Cloud Security Services You Need To Know About

These 10 consulting and managed service bundles help businesses plan safe migrations to the cloud, identify and mitigate significant cloud-borne threats, and prepare for and respond to cloud breaches.

Women Of The Channel 2020: Leading Fearlessly In A Time Of Crisis

The COVID-19 pandemic has called on female executives to do the one thing that many have avoided in their professional careers: get personal.

2020 Women of the Channel Awards

This year, CRN honors more than 900 women whose channel expertise and vision are deserving of recognition.

2020 Solution Provider 500

CRN's Solution Provider 500 ranks the top integrators, service providers and IT consultants in North America by services revenue.

Rising To The Occasion: The 2020 Solution Provider 500

The COVID-19 pandemic has upended the global economy and the IT industry. For the channel, it’s no longer business as usual but the companies on this year’s CRN Solution Provider 500 list are meeting the new challenges head-on.

COLUMNS

Faletra: The Coronavirus And 5G Technology, A Perfect Match

The Channel Company's Executive Chairman Robert Faletra says the stars are lined up to result in an extremely rapid movement toward a completely different business environment centered around remote instant information access.

Burke: Future Shock -- COVID-19 Channel Upheaval

CRN's Steve Burke says the old channel playbook has been thrown out the window.


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FEATURES

Dell Technologies: Fueling The Future For Partners

In these unprecedented times, Dell Technologies’ focus is on ensuring partners and customers have what they need to forge ahead. Fueling that future will be the company’s new next-generation Power-branded portfolio.

Michael Dell On The Impact Of Coronavirus, VMware Integration And Networking Share Gains

Michael Dell spoke with CRN about why now is the best time to be a Dell Technologies partner.

5 Ways Dell Technologies Partners ‘Are Going To Win More’ With PowerStore

In an interview with CRN, 20-year Dell EMC veteran Scott Millard breaks down everything Dell Technologies is bringing to the table with PowerStore.

Dell’s Next-Generation Storage Platform Is Here: PowerStore Is ‘Untouchable’

PowerStore is the ‘absolute right platform for what customers need now and will need through the data era,’ says Dell Technologies’ Caitlin Gordon.

Bill Scannell: Why Dell Technologies ‘Stands To Benefit The Most’ In a Data-Driven, Multi-Cloud World

In an interview with CRN, Dell Technologies President Bill Scannell explains why Dell Technologies -- along with its partners -- will shine over the next decade.

Dell Channel Chief Mullen On Coronavirus Crisis: ‘This Is A Time When Partners Really Shine’

Dell Technologies partners are proving they have the unique skill sets and vertical industry expertise to help their customers run their business.

3 Ways Dell Technologies Is ‘Raising The Bar’ Across Its Partner Program

Dell channel VP Darren Sullivan discusses why the Dell Technologies Partner Program is now better than ever.

10 Hot Dell Technologies Infrastructure And PC Products

These 10 products are paving the way for digital transformation and the new work-at-home workforce.

Dell Channel Chief: Dell Will Come Out Of Coronavirus Pandemic ‘Stronger And More Effective Than Ever’

Dell Channel Chief Joyce Mullen talks about helping partners today and empowering them for tomorrow.


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FEATURES

Cover Story: How Thomas Kurian’s ‘Quite Simple’ Strategy Is Transforming Google Cloud

Thomas Kurian has upped Google’s cloud game with hot new technology, a razor-sharp vertical market focus and big partner investments.

Tech Ten: 10 Hot Devices For Your Mobile Work Setup

Here are 10 devices that can play a starring role in a mobile work setup for your home office.

2020 Partner Program Guide

The 2020 Partner Program Guide is based on detailed applications submitted by 238 vendors, outlining all aspects of their partner programs.

2020 Internet Of Things 50: Realizing The Promise Of IoT

For solution providers just getting started in IoT and those who have already established businesses in the field, CRN presents the 50 coolest IoT companies of the year across connectivity, hardware, industrial IoT, security and software.

The Heartbeat Of Business: The 2020 CRN Storage 100

The Storage 100 highlights the best, brightest, and most innovative providers of storage technology for solution providers.

The 2020 Tech Elite 250

The Tech Elite 250 is comprised of solution providers in the U.S. and Canada who have the highest level and most certifications from Amazon, Cisco, Dell, Google, HPE, IBM, Juniper, Microsoft, NetApp, Nutanix, Oracle, Pure Storage and VMware.

COLUMNS

Faletra: These Changes Create An Opportunity We’ve Not Seen Before

The Channel Company's Executive Chairman Robert Faletra believes that the challenge of the coronavirus lends an business opportunity for solution providers.

Burke: Google's Alpha Bet: Why Google Cloud Is The Real Deal

Thomas Kurian has brought order to what was a less-than-partner-friendly approach to the cloud market by Google Cloud.


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FEATURES

10 Storage Startups Flexing Their Muscles With New Takes On Technology

CRN highlights 10 new offerings have the potential to reshape the storage landscape.

5 Big Things To Know About IBM's New CEO Arvind Krishna

Despite being far less known than current IBM CEO Virginia Rometty, Krishna will bring a powerful combination of technological and operational experience to the role, according to the company.

Cover Story: CEO Outlook 2020

CRN asked 79 of the industry's top CEOs five questions on their views for how 2020 will shape up.

Channel Chiefs

Here are the executives who know how to create a partner program that delivers.

Security 100

CRN's Security 100 list helps solution providers decide what technologies and vendors they should place their bets on in the crowded and complex security vendor market.

Cloud 100

The 2020 installment of CRN's 100 Coolest Cloud Computing companies highlights the best of the best in cloud infrastructure, management, security, software, and storage.

MSP 500

The Top Managed Service Providers and Consultants in North America

COLUMNS

Faletra: Defending High-Tech And Its Billionaire Entrepreneurs

In response to Rep. Alexandria Ocasio Cortez’s recent comments on billionaires, The Channel Company's Executive Chairman Robert Faletra wants to point out a few things that she seems to be forgetting.

Burke: CPP Associates Is Betting Big On The Future

The hybrid cloud solution provider is making a $1 million investment over the next five years to bring a wide range of breakthrough artificial intelligence data solutions to customers.

FEATURES

Cover Story: AWS CEO Andy Jassy’s ‘Very Ambitious Plan’ To Keep AWS On Top

AWS CEO Andy Jassy aims to keep the cloud giant at the top of the computing pyramid by adding more technology services, lowering costs for customers, and expanding its commitment to the company's fast-growing AWS Partner Network.

Products of the Year

CRN editors looked at the best new products and major updates of 2019 and then turned to solution providers to choose the winners based on technology, revenue and profit opportunities, and customer demand.

Tech Innovators

The ability to empower solution providers with truly differentiated offerings is the crowning achievement of our Tech Innovator winners and finalists.

Next-Gen 250

The Next Gen 250 highlights the solution providers that have developed skills, solutions and services around the leading-edge technologies that are driving the IT industry today.

10 Hottest Cloud Security Tools Of 2019

The 10 tools making noise in the cloud security market have emphasized the safe migration of applications and data, maintaining compliance in the public cloud, and correlating threat activity in disparate clouds.

COLUMNS

Faletra: What Supplier Consolidation Might Mean To Your Business

The Channel Company's Executive Chairman Robert Faletra says that solution providers are in a better position if they have alternatives to suppliers.

Burke: Andy Jassy's 'Super Strategic' Partner Bet

AWS CEO Andy Jassy is touting a 'new generation' of systems integrations that have 'embraced the cloud and invested very deeply.'

FEATURES

Cover Story: What Recession? Solution Providers Bullish On 2020 Economic Opportunities

In a recent survey of solution provider CEOs attending this month’s Best of Breed channel thought leadership conference, 69 percent of those surveyed said they do not expect a recession next year.

2019 Annual Report Card

For the 34th year, solution providers scored vendors in 23 product categories based on their performance in product innovation, support, partnership, and managed and cloud services.

2019 Cloud Partner Programs Guide

CRN's annual Cloud Partner Program Guide provides partners with the insight needed to navigate through the crowded cloud landscape and identify the vendors that best meet the needs of their customers.

The 100 People You Don’t Know But Should

CRN spotlights some of the channel’s best and brightest people who may not be as visible as some channel chiefs or CEOs but are just as important to the partner community.

Going Above And Beyond: CRN’s 2019 Triple Crown Award Winners

CRN assembles a number of lists and rankings throughout the year, including the Solution Provider 500, the Fast Growth 150 and the Tech Elite 250. CRN recognizes the 47 solution providers that earned a spot on all three lists this year with the annual Triple Crown honors.

Tech 10: Fulfilling The Big Promises Of Big Data In The Cloud

Here are ten new software offerings for improving business user and application access to rapidly expanding cloud data sources.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Should You Bet Your Storage Practice On Pure Storage?

The Channel Company's Executive Chairman Robert Faletra wonders if Pure Storage considers the channel a strategic partner in the way rivals Dell and HPE do.

Burke: NWN’s Secret Weapon

Why a homegrown NWN experience management platform is a digital transformation game-changer.

FEATURES

Cover Story: The Future According To Michael Dell

Michael Dell has always been one step ahead of the biggest technology transitions, using that incredible foresight to build a $91 billion infrastructure powerhouse.

The 10 Coolest Flash Storage And SSD Technologies Of 2019 (So Far)

CRN looks at 10 new all-flash arrays and SSDs from leading storage vendors including Violin Systems and IBM.

The Top 100 IT Executives Of 2019

We present the CRN Top 100 Executives of 2019 list, the men and women who are setting the pace for the rest of the IT industry.

Emerging IT Vendors You Need To Know In 2019

In our annual Emerging Vendors special report, CRN shines a light on some of the most exciting new channel-focused vendors helping create opportunity for solution providers.

The 2019 Fast Growth 150

CRN's Fast Growth 150 ranks solution providers with gross annual sales of at least $1 million by their two-year growth rate.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Amazon And What It Takes To Be A Great Channel Chief

The Channel Company's Executive Chairman Robert Faletra gives his thoughts to Amazon's new channel chief on what has made some of the truly great channel leaders in the past so good.

FEATURES

Cover Story: AI Explosion: How Solution Providers Are Cashing In Big

As artificial intelligence gets built into a wide range of products and market segments, savvy solution providers are rapidly scaling their practices across the stack and creating booming profit centers.

2019 Women of the Channel

This year, CRN honors over 700 women whose channel expertise and vision are deserving of recognition.

2019 Solution Provider 500

The Solution Provider 500 is our annual listing of the top solution provider organizations in North America, ranked by revenue.

Lenovo's New ThinkBook, ThinkCentre Nano Prove The Power Of Innovation

Lenovo has launched a new notebook brand as well as a new product category within the desktop PC market.

Tech 10: Getting Smart About Advanced Threat Protection

These 10 offerings thwart the most insidious ransomware and zero-day threats through sandboxing, shared intelligence and automated processes.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Vendor Talk Of Partner Engagement Needs To Be Flipped

When the channel matters to a vendor’s CEO, it matters to everyone inside the organization.

Burke: How Champions Of Change Became An HPE Greenlake Superstar

Champions of Change, an Australian strategic service provider, delivered the first GreenLake Flex Capacity 3.0 channel pay-per-use deal.

FEATURES

Cover Story: The Wipro Breach: Why Managed Service Providers Are At Risk

Solution providers are shoring up their defenses to thwart the alarming rise in foreign-government-sponsored hackers seeking to infiltrate them.

2019 Partner Program Guide

The 2019 Partner Program Guide offers the information solution providers need to evaluate IT vendors they work with or are considering working with. The guide is based on detailed applications submitted by over 270 vendors, outlining all aspects of their partner programs.

2019 Internet Of Things 50: IoT's Next Chapter

The need for solution providers to guide companies through IoT projects—from the procurement of hardware and sensors to the monitoring and management of new systems—is greater than ever before. Here are CRN's picks for the 50 coolest IoT companies of the year that solution providers can look to for a leg up.

2019 Tech Elite 250

The Tech Elite 250 is comprised of solution providers in the U.S. and Canada who have the highest level and most certifications from Amazon, Cisco, Dell, HPE, Oracle and VMware.

Tech Ten: 10 Coolest Business-Friendly Devices For Mobile Workers

Business-friendly smartphones, portable laptops, tablets and a variety of accessories make mobility a gamechanger in any business environment.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Politics, The Cloud, Edge And Creative Destruction

The Channel Company's Executive Chairman Robert Faletra cautions against listening to politicians when they talk about the evils of high-tech.

Burke: The True Cost Of Public Cloud

CRN's Steve Burke says it's vital for companies to have trusted cloud advisers to determine which solution will provide the most value.

FEATURES

Cover Story: Automate Or Die: Why IT Services Automation Is Critical For Channel Success

Solution providers say their very survival rests on how successful they are at automating arduous IT tasks for today's digital transformation customers.

Channel Chiefs

Our 2019 Channel Chief honorees are selected by CRN's editorial staff on the basis of their professional achievements, standing in the industry, dedication to the channel partner community and strategies for driving future growth and innovation.

Cloud 100

The 2019 installment of CRN's 100 Coolest Cloud Computing Vendors highlights the best of the best in cloud infrastructure, security, software, platforms and storage.

Security 100

In its fourth year, CRN's annual Security 100 gives solution providers a clear path to navigate the fast-growing security vendor market.

MSP 500

CRN's Managed Service Provider 500 list recognizes the top technology providers and consultants in North America whose forward-thinking approach to providing managed services is changing the landscape of the IT channel.

2019 Data Center 50 (Online-only)

CRN's Data Center 50 list highlights the key companies evolving and powering today's data centers through innovative offerings.

10 Software-Defined Storage Pioneers That Are Shaking Things Up

Here are 10 software-defined storage offerings that can help customers see lower costs and increased flexibility.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Taking Down Amazon's Public Cloud Business

The Channel Company's Executive Chairman Robert Faletra says the battle for supremacy in the cloud market continues to heat up.

Burke: Strategic Service Providers See Astronomical Growth Through Recurring Revenue

CRN's Steve Burke highlights the off-the-charts recurring revenue growth being driven by strategic service providers.

FEATURES

Cover Story: CEO Outlook 2019

How will the industry's top executives ring in the new year? Here's what they have to say about innovation, investments and the keys to success for their channel partners.

CRN's 2018 Products Of The Year

CRN editors looked at the best new products and major updates of 2018 and then turned to solution providers to choose the winners based on technology, revenue and profit opportunities, and customer demand.

2018 Tech Innovators Awards

The ability to translate a future-facing view of technology into reality today is the crowning achievement of this year's Tech Innovator winners.

2018 Next-Gen 250

The Next Gen 250 list recognizes standout IT solution providers who have successfully transformed their businesses to meet the demands of emerging technologies such as cloud computing, IoT, virtualization, mobility, business analytics and business intelligence.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Why Doesn't Anyone Talk About IBM Anymore?

The Channel Company's Executive Chairman Robert Faletra covered IBM during the 1980s, and now he wonders why the technology giant no longer wants to step to the forefront and be part of the conversation.

FEATURES

Cover Story: Boom Times: Why 2018 Is Shaping Up To Be A Very Good Year

With tax cuts spurring IT spending and fueling sales, solution providers say 2018 is shaping up to be a very good year.

100 People You Don't Know But Should 2018

CRN salutes the under-the-radar players that make sure solution provider partnerships thrive and channel business gets done.

2018 Annual Report Card

For the 33rd year, solution providers scored vendors in 24 product categories based on their performance in product innovation, support and partnership.

Cloud Partner Programs Guide

CRN's annual Cloud Partner Program Guide provides partners with the insight needed to navigate through the crowded cloud vendor landscape and identify the vendors that best meet the needs of their customers.

CRN's 2018 Triple Crown Award Winners

CRN recognizes the 46 organizations that earned a spot on all three of our solution provider lists this year with the annual Triple Crown honors.

Tech 10: Wrestling With The Big(ger) Data Challenge

CRN highlights 10 new software offerings for managing and analyzing data that's moving faster and exploding in volume.

COLUMNS

Faletra: The Economy Is Humming -- So Let The Good Times Roll

Now is the time for strategic solution providers to double down on sales and execution.

FEATURES

Cover Story: The Top 100 Executives Of 2018

Here we present the CRN Top 100 Executives of 2018 list, the men and women who are setting the pace for the rest of the IT industry.

2018 Network Connectivity Partner Program Guide

CRN's 2018 Network Connectivity Services Partner Program Guide is meant to highlight some of the industry's leading portfolios of telecom, cloud and connectivity offerings.

2018 Emerging Vendors

CRN shines a light on some of the most exciting new channel-focused vendors helping create new solutions for business and opportunity for solution providers.

The 2018 Fast Growth 150

CRN's 2018 Fast Growth 150 ranks solution providers with gross annual sales of at least $1 million by their two-year growth rate.

The 10 Top Hyper-Converged Platforms Of 2018 (So Far)

Hyper-converged infrastructure (HCI) combines storage, computing, networking and software into a single system aimed at reducing complexity and boosting scalability.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Back To The Future With Channel Structure--Not Really

For the vendor and partner community alike, it's important to gauge where the market is headed to react and capitalize on the future structure.

FEATURES

Cover Story: Blockchain Bonanza: Solution Providers Say The Technology Behind Bitcoin Is 'The Real Deal'

Solution providers and other industry observers say the applicability of blockchain, the distributed ledger technology that powers cryptocurrencies, has the potential to impact banking and financial markets, insurance, retail and consumer goods, health care, government and transportation and more.

2018 Women of the Channel

This year, CRN honors more than 600 women whose channel expertise and vision are deserving of recognition.

2018 Solution Provider 500

CRN's Solution Provider 500 ranks the top integrators, service providers and IT consultants in North America by services revenue.

COLUMNS

Robert Faletra: Using IT As A Competitive Sales Weapon

Solution providers have the advantage of understanding IT threats and should use it when appropriate as a selling technique.

FEATURES

Cover Story: Riding The SD-WAN Rocket Ship

When a technology can completely change the way a business operates, you'd better get on board. Solution providers are calling SD-WAN the biggest sales driver in almost two decades.

Tech 10: Cool Devices For A Mobile Workforce

CRN rounds up 10 of the latest devices -- from business-friendly smartphones to portable and always-connected laptops and tablets to accessories -- for getting the job done.

2018 Partner Program Guide

The 2018 Partner Program Guide is based on detailed applications submitted by over 270 vendors, outlining all aspects of their partner programs.

The 2018 Security 100

In its third year, CRN's annual Security 100 gives solution providers a clear path to navigate the fast-growing security vendor market.

MSSP Superstar Michael Knight: Slow And Steady Wins The Managed Security Services Race

Encore Technology Group President and CTO Michael Knight said partners looking to break into the MSSP space should examine where their talent is today, what they can do that's repeatable, and what they have to change.

2018 Internet Of Things 50

CRN presents the 2018 Internet Of Things 50, a list of the coolest vendors in security, hardware, industrial IoT, and software and services.

The 2018 Tech Elite 250

The Tech Elite 250 is comprised of solution providers who have the highest level and most certifications from the industry's leading vendors.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Advancing Technology Threatens Public Cloud And Stymies Politicians

Hyper-converged infrastructure and software-defined networking are changing the cloud dynamics. On-premises may actually prove to be more cost-effective than pure public cloud deployments.

Burke: Tips From A Channel Jedi Master

LogicMonitor's David Powell shares his practical guide for channel success.

FEATURES

Cover Story: The Bug Bounty Business: How Solution Providers Are Cashing In

Bug bounty programs are nearly as old as the internet itself. But today they’re big business for solution providers that can offer complementary consulting, triage and remediation services.

The 100 Coolest Cloud Computing Vendors Of 2018

The 2018 installment of CRN's 100 Coolest Cloud Computing Vendors highlights the best of the best in cloud infrastructure, platforms and development, security, storage and software.

The 2018 Managed Service Provider 500

CRN again assembles the Managed Service Provider 500, an annual list that recognizes North American solution providers with cutting-edge approaches to delivering managed services.

The 2018 Data Center 100

The data center evolution shows no signs of slowing down, but how do solution providers quickly adapt their business models and keep an eye out for innovation at the same time? That's where the Data Center 100 list can help.

2018 Channel Chiefs

Check out the 2018 Channel Chiefs, CRN's annual list of the top channel executives, sortable by name or company.

Cloud Cornerstones: 19 New Ways To Connect Storage To AWS

The cloud is becoming an ever-more important part of the definition of data protection, disaster recovery and archiving, and these 19 vendors are helping partners utilize AWS in their storage infrastructures.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Tim Cook's Apple Looks A Lot Different Than Steve Jobs'

In the Tim Cook era, Apple has pivoted from a product-driven company with excellent marketing to a marketing-driven company with mediocre products.

Burke: Spectre And Meltdown: Rating The Vendors

Google, Cisco, Intel and Red Hat came out on top in a CRN survey of vendor response to the Spectre and Meltdown vulnerabilities.

FEATURES

Cover Story: Life On The Edge: Why Micro Data Centers Are The Next Frontier

While vendors are innovating at the edge with new products and services, customers remain confused about how they can take advantage of and drive value from edge computing.

Innovating Around The Edge: 5 Sharp Companies Making Their Mark

CRN highlights five companies that are creating innovative and unique edge computing offerings for partners and customers.

CRN's 2017 Products Of The Year

For this year's Products Of The Year, CRN editors selected five product finalists among 20 top technology categories for the IT channel. After a survey that netted more than 4,000 responses, here are the hot products that stood out from the rest in 2017.

2017 Internet Of Things 50

For solution providers just getting into the IoT arena to those already building their business around the technology, here is CRN’s list of the 50 coolest companies in security, hardware, industrial IoT, and software and services.

The 2017 Tech Innovator Awards

The ability to translate a future-facing view of technology into reality today is the crowning achievement of this year's Tech Innovator winners. Here's who has provided that spark this year.

2017 Storage Emerging Vendors

As part of CRN's Emerging Vendors for 2017, here are 30 hot storage startups, founded in 2011 or later, that solution providers should be aware of.

2017 Next Gen 250

The Next Gen 250 list recognizes standout IT solution providers who have successfully transformed their businesses to meet the demands of emerging technologies.

COLUMNS

Faletra: 2018 Forecast: Prepare For A Tech Acquisition Blizzard

With increasing private equity interest and corporate tax cuts in sight, 2018 is shaping up to be a record year on the M&A front in tech.

Lessons In Leadership: Meg Whitman Saved HP And HPE

For HP And HPE partners, there's no question who is responsible one of the all-time great turnarounds in corporate history - Meg Whitman.

FEATURES

Cover Story: A Brave New World: Pat Gelsinger Leads VMware Into The Multi-Cloud Era

VMware CEO Pat Gelsinger has powered the virtualization market leader into the multi-cloud era with breakthrough new partnerships and products, including VMware Cloud on AWS and AppDefense.

2017 Annual Report Card

For the 32nd year, solution providers scored vendors in 22 product categories based on their performance in product innovation, support and partnership.

On Top Of The Clouds

CRN's annual Cloud Partner Program Guide provides partners with the insight needed to navigate through the crowded cloud vendor landscape and identify the vendors that best meet the needs of their customers.

Emerging Vendors

Hot startups in even hotter technologies: networking/VoIP and the Internet of Things.

Three Steps Ahead: CRN's 2017 Triple Crown Award Winners

CRN assembles a number of lists and rankings throughout the year, including the Solution Provider 500, the Fast Growth 150 and the Tech Elite 250. CRN recognizes the 40 solution providers that earned a spot on all three lists this year with the annual Triple Crown honors.

100 People You Don't Know But Should

CRN salutes the under-the-radar players that make sure solution provider partnerships thrive and channel business gets done.

Tech 10: Big Doings In Big Data

CRN highlights 10 offerings and industry developments that provide new ways to manage and analyze big data.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Beating Up On Market Development Funds

With the pace of change in the market and the need to cut costs and drive revenue, MDF scrutiny is going to increase.

Burke: IoT Is Taking Off: But You Must Make The Big Investments To Score

All of the recent paradigm shifts in IT pale in comparison to the Internet of Things, a transformation that requires solution providers to make significant investments in order to reap the rewards.

FEATURES

Tech 10: New Generation Servers Front And Center

Intel's new "Skylake" Xeon Scalable Platform is at the heart of a new crop of servers destined to impact the data center.

Channel Icon Frank Vitagliano To Be Inducted Into IT Hall Of Fame

Vitagliano, a channel legend and current CEO of Computex, will accept the honor at The Channel Company's XChange 2017 conference being held next month in Orlando, Fla.

Cover Story: All The Right Moves: Michael Dell Leads The CRN 2017 Top 100 Executives Pack

Dell Technologies CEO Michael Dell's agility, adaptability and willingness to buck the status quo put him at the top of the class in this year's Top 100 Executives.

The Top 100 Executives Of 2017

Here we present the CRN Top 100 Executives of 2017 list, the fastest-moving executives in a market moving at warp speed.

Network Connectivity Partner Programs

CRN's 2017 Network Connectivity Services Partner Program Guide is meant to highlight some of the industry's leading portfolios of telecom, cloud and connectivity offerings. It also recognizes those industry players who seem ready, willing and able to help partners wrap their arms around IT-Telecom convergence, and the many moving parts it entails.

2017 Emerging Vendors

In the IT industry, shattering the status quo is the status quo. While big vendors generate their share of ground-breaking products, startups are a major driver of innovation and are changing the rules of the game.

The Power Of Marketing

The 2017 Fast Growth 250 shows the channel in a state of serious flux, fueled by cloud computing, IoT, mobility and other disruptive technologies.

The 2017 Fast Growth 150

The Fast Growth 150 is CRN's annual ranking of the channel's most rapidly expanding solution providers, technology integrators, IT consultants and strategic service providers in North America. The list requires companies report gross sales of at least $1 million, and then ranks them according to their two-year growth rate.

COLUMNS

Burke: Small Business-Minded: Linksys Arms Its Partners With Enterprise Tech At SMB Price Points

Linksys has long been known has a company capable of delivering enterprise-class products at SMB prices, but since being acquired by Belkin, it has significantly upped its investments in technology innovation and partner program improvement.

Faletra: Is Marketing A Make Or Buy Decision?

The business of selling technology is evolving so rapidly that SSPs have to invest in how they convey their brand in the market. But that proposes a legitimate question: Are you better off buying your marketing from experts or assembling an in-house team?

FEATURES

Cover Story: The New Old Guard: Symantec And McAfee Fight To Regain Dominance In The New World Of Security

Legacy security giants Symantec and McAfee are undergoing drastic business changes to better compete in a complex security market littered with hot startups.

2017 Women of the Channel

This year, CRN honors more than 500 women whose channel expertise and vision are deserving of recognition.

A Voice For Each Other: Longtime Women Executives Are the Advocates for A New Generation

For women in the IT world, being the voice of change starts with being a voice for each other.

Solution Provider 500

The Solution Provider 500 is our annual listing of the top solution provider organizations in North America, ranked by revenue.

2017 Emerging Vendors

While big vendors generate their share of ground-breaking products, startups are a major driver of innovation and are changing the rules of the game.

COLUMNS

Faletra: What Is High-Tech's Obligation In The War On Terror?

With the acceleration in terrorist attacks around the world, it can't be long before the debate escalates and pressure rises on those companies whose products and services are being used to plan, communicate and execute these horrendous crimes against innocent people.

Burke: The Digital Marketing Era: Why It's Do-Or-Die Time For The Channel

Solution providers that are not arming themselves with digital marketing demand generation expertise are at a serious risk of losing customers, and they might not even realize it until it's too late.

FEATURES

Cover Story: Look Out AWS and Azure – Google's Drive To The Enterprise

Under Diane Greene, Google's enterprise charge is now backed by new leadership, programs and attitude. Partners are cautiously hopeful real change is right around the corner.

Partner Program Guide

The 2017 Partner Program Guide is based on detailed applications submitted by over 250 vendors, outlining all aspects of their partner programs.

The Security 100

The 2017 installment of CRN's Security 100 highlights the best of the best in network security, SIEM and threat detection, web, email and application security, and identity management and data protection.

Sharpening Their Skills: The Tech Elite 250

The Tech Elite 250 is comprised of solution providers in the U.S. and Canada who have the highest partner levels from Amazon, Cisco, Google, HPE, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Trend Micro and VMware. Here is a sampling of that list.

Tech 10: Cool Products To Transform The Modern Workplace Into A Mobile One

This month's Tech 10 looks at the latest mobile devices that are carving big roles in the enterprise.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Using Marketing To Get To The 'As A Service' End Game

Strategic service providers can't afford to be viewed as old-school on-premise infrastructure players. Rebuilding the legacy brand to present a leadership player capable of bringing the customer to the new compute model is the key first step to the 'as a service' end game.

Burke: Welcome To The Rise Of The Strategic Service Provider Business

The strategic service provider shift is forcing cloud services companies, including Google, to step up to the plate with new channel models.

FEATURES

Private Equity Power Play: Why Solution Providers Are The Next Big Bet

Private equity firms invested a mind-boggling $25 billion in the channel in 2016, and there are no signs of a slowdown this year.

Q&A: KKR's Herald Chen On Why Private Equity Sees The Channel As A 'Great Value Proposition'

KKR executive Herald Chen spoke with CRN about why the opportunity is greater than ever for an investment in a solution provider company like Optiv Security and what value private equity in turn can bring to the channel.

Channel Chiefs 2017

Here we present the 2017 Channel Chiefs, CRN's annual list of the top channel executives and what they've been doing to ready their channel programs for 2017.

The 100 Coolest Cloud Computing Vendors Of 2017

The 2017 installment of CRN's 100 Coolest Cloud Computing Vendors highlights the best of the best in cloud infrastructure, platforms and development, security, storage and software.

Data Center 100

Broken into five categories, the DC 100 highlights the providers that represent their respective fields with a combination of innovation, market share, and technology and channel capabilities.

Managed Service Provider 500

CRN's fourth annual Managed Service Provider 500 recognizes recognizes North American solution providers with cutting-edge approaches to delivering managed services.

Tech 10: Crossing The Chasm From Consumer Storage To Business

CRN looks at 10 products that combine the ease of use expected in consumer storage devices with the robust reliability and functionality demanded of business-class storage devices.

COLUMNS

Faletra; Why It's Time For Tim Cook To Step Down

While no one expected Tim Cook to be Steve Jobs, the expectation was that he would surround himself with people who would make up for his weaknesses in the visionary areas that Jobs excelled at.

Burke: There's Never Been A Better Time To Invest In The Channel

Tech vendors can learn a lot from the massive bets private equity firms are placing on the channel - an all-time high at more than $25 billion in 2016.

FEATURES

Cover Story: Get On Board: Docker's Channel Maturity Unlocks The Container Tech Opportunity

Containers are changing the way enterprises consume IT, and solution providers proficient in the technology possess one of the hottest skill sets on the planet. It’s not too late to grab hold of the opportunity.

Products Of The Year

For this year's Products of the Year, CRN editors selected five finalists among 17 technology categories and then asked solution providers to rate the products to determine a winner. Here are the hot products that stood out from the rest in 2016.

The Internet Of Things 50

The Internet of Things market is quickly moving beyond smart homes and automated cars to the enterprise and verticals where solution providers play a big role. And many vendors across the spectrum are actively looking for partners to customize their offerings and deliver innovative solutions.

Tech Innovator Awards

The 2016 Tech Innovator Awards honor vendors in 28 categories, with the winners and finalists chosen from among 230 applicants in areas ranging from cloud to security to networking to mobile.

Faces Of The 2016 Next-Gen 250

Here we present 25 companies on CRN's 2016 Next-Gen 250 list, a spotlight shined on 250 solution providers born since 2000.

The Enterprise App Awards

CRN editors honor 14 apps that are pushing forward innovation in enterprise mobility.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Dell's Marius Haas: This Guy Can Work A Crowd

The Channel Company has been running events for more than 25 years, yet it's still impressive to see a vendor executive with the capacity to network with the crowd and actually use an event to foster relationships with solution providers.

Burke: Channel 2017: 'Don't Guess. Assess The Mess.'

Placing a sharp focus on a no-holds-barred unique consulting methodology is key to the success of any and all solution providers in 2017.

FEATURES

Supercharged: How Solution Providers Are Moving The Needle In Today's Innovative IoT Market

Solution providers have the customer relationships, vertical market expertise and managed services savviness to power up today's innovative Internet of Things solutions.

Tech 10: The Big Data Software Boom

Here are 10 products and solutions that provide new ways for solution providers to manage and analyze the explosion of big data

100 People You Don't Know But Should

CRN salutes the under-the-radar players that make sure solution provider partnerships thrive and channel business gets done.

2016 Annual Report Card

The competition was as heated as ever in CRN's 2016 Annual Report Card with industry leaders continuing to dominate some product categories and new vendors making their marks in others. See how solution providers graded their vendor partners on product innovation, support and partnership.

IT Hall Of Fame: How Jim Dixon Put Customers First And Turned CompuCom Into A Services Giant

Jim Dixon transformed CompuCom from selling PCs in retail stores to a $2.2 billion reccuring revenue behemoth thanks to a conservative cost structure, tight-knit client relationships and fierce employee loyalty.

Cloud Partner Programs Guide

Innovative cloud partner programs are key to solution provider success. These vendors are addressing today's pain points.

Rising To The Challenge: CRN's 2016 Triple Crown Award Winners

CRN assembles a number of lists and rankings throughout the year, including the Solution Provider 500, the Fast Growth 150 and the Tech Elite 250. CRN recognizes the 48 solution providers that earned a spot on all three lists this year with the third-annual Triple Crown honors.

COLUMNS

Faletra: Distribution Consolidation And The Expansion Of Distribution

The recent news that Tech Data would acquire Avnet's Technology Solutions business comes on the heels of Ingram Micro's announced sale of its entire business to a China-based logistics conglomerate.

Burke: A Secure Future

When a major insurance provider had millions of dollars in policies put at risk because its IT department did not have a rigorous SOC 2 compliance report, it turned to one of the top MSPs in the Midwest.

FEATURES

How Private Is Your Public Cloud? Stacking Up Google, Microsoft And AWS Data Privacy

Concerns over privacy and security in the cloud have hit fever pitch, spurred by a battle over an encrypted iPhone and ongoing worries over government access to personal information. It's up to solution providers to be the first line of defense.

Why App Development Is The Key To Unlocking The IoT Vault

Solution providers are staffing up with application developers, aiming to monetize on the Internet of Things with packaged solutions for vertical industries.

Tech 10: Making 'Software-Defined' A Reality

CRN looks at 10 technologies that are advancing the still-elusive, but someday-to-be-ubiquitous, software-defined data center.

2016 Emerging Vendors

Each year, CRN looks at the hot IT startups making an impact on the channel.

The Top 100 Executives Of 2016

Here we present the CRN Top 100 Executives of 2016 list, the fastest-moving executives in a market moving at warp speed.

2016 Network Connectivity Partner Programs Guide

The industry's leading portfolios of telecom, cloud and connectivity offerings.

2016 Fast Growth 150

The Fast Growth 150 is CRN's annual ranking of the fastest growing solution providers, resellers, technology integrators and IT consultants in North America.

2016 Partner Marketing Guide

CRN's 2016 CRN Partner Marketing Guide lists marketing programs that vendors offer to VARs, providing support, services and capabilities to the indirect IT channel.

2016 Emerging Vendors: The Innovation Drivers

In the IT industry, shattering the status quo is the status quo. While big vendors generate their share of ground-breaking products, startups are a major driver of innovation and are changing the rules of the game.

Connectivity: The Great Cloud Services Enabler

Cloud services offer the promise of lucrative, monthly recurring revenue, but solution providers always need to be able to offer a full IT solution to their customers. To that end, connectivity services are critical: Customers can't reach the cloud without it.

COLUMNS

Burke: Why NWN Is All Business When It Comes To The Cloud

NWN recently launched a new entity, NCapital, aimed at providing the financial muscle and technology know-how for customers to move to the cloud without making capital expenditures.

Faletra: The Time Is Now For Tim Cook To Think Different

Five years into his reign at the helm of Apple, CEO Tim Cook and the Apple board need to start "thinking different" about the channel and the company's entire approach to the market.

FEATURES

Chuck's Rx: Cisco's Prescription For Subscription

Entering his second year on the job, Cisco CEO Chuck Robbins is putting his stamp on the company with a new recurring revenue software model to keep its core networking business and channel healthy.

The 2016 Solution Provider 500

The Solution Provider 500 is our annual listing of the top solution provider organizations in North America, ranked by revenue.

Growth Engine: The 2016 Solution Provider 500

The channel is undergoing a significant evolution as VARs and solution providers morph into strategic service providers: independent trusted technology consultants that drive business outcomes with an emphasis on cloud and managed services delivered through a recurring revenue model.

2016 Women of the Channel

This year, CRN honors nearly 500 women whose channel expertise and vision are deserving of recognition.

Mind The Gap: Execs Say Gender Gap In IT Is Closing, But Work Isn't Done Yet

The gender gap within the IT industry is narrowing. Women of the Channel executives say that mentoring, creating a personal brand, and promoting a flexible office environment will help close the gap for good.

COLUMNS

Burke: Sales-Engaged: HPE's Whitman Leads The Class Of CEO Sales Communicators

CRN's Steve Burke ranks the industry's top CEOs when it comes to communicating their sales strategy to channel partners.

Faletra: Why Cisco's Chuck Robbins Is Able To Move So Fast

Nearly a year into his role at the helm of Cisco, Chuck Robbins is proving the value of choosing a new CEO from within when it comes to a company of Cisco's size.

FEATURES

Telecom Turmoil: Solution Providers Place Their Bets As Carrier Churn Rocks The Industry

Solution providers have to navigate through a fast-moving telecom landscape as carrier churn escalates and a new class of tier-two cloud service providers swoops in.

10 Signs Of Telecom Turmoil

The telecom industry is in a state of flux as customers demand cloud and strategic IT services, in addition to connectivity.

Partner Programs Guide

The 2016 Partner Programs Guide offers the information solution providers need to evaluate the IT vendors they work with or are considering working with.

2016 Partner Programs Guide: A Blueprint For Partnerships

CRN's annual Partner Programs Guide offers solution providers the information they need to evaluate the IT vendors they already work with or are considering partnering with.

The 2016 Security 100

CRN's Security 100 highlights the best of the best in endpoint protection, SIEM and threat detection, network security, identity management, and application security.

2016 Virtualization 50

From server virtualization to hyper-converged infrastructure, the Virtualization 50 celebrates the vendors tackling the different facets of virtualization technologies.

Sharpening Their Skills: The 2016 CRN Tech Elite 250

The Tech Elite 250 is comprised of solution providers in the U.S. and Canada who have the highest level and most certifications from Cisco, Citrix, Dell, EMC, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Microsoft, NetApp, Symantec and VMware. Here is a sampling of that list.

COLUMNS

Decision Disconnect: Many Vendors Fail To Recognize The Partner Journey

86 percent of solution providers are planning to add a new vendor or a technology practice in 2016, but most vendors are in the dark when it comes to the partner's decision making process.

A Race To The Bottom In Cloud Infrastructure

Partners that have a single supplier face a significant revenue risk in the event that supplier decides to sell off its data center assets to a company that is either unfriendly toward the channel or just doesn't understand it.

FEATURES

Big Data's Big Role In Big Politics

Solution providers are combining analytics with new technologies such as social listening to help presidential candidates attract the right voters at the right time with the right message.

How Partners Are Separating Politics From Business

By taking a nonpartisan stance, solution providers are reaping lucrative rewards this election season.

Microsoft Acquires Mobile Cross-Platform Development Startup Xamarin

Xamarin's technology lets developers build native iOS and Android apps using Microsoft's C# programming language, which means they can write one set of code and use it for apps targeting multiple platforms.

2016 Channel Chiefs

Meet the executives responsible for running channels at vendors in the IT market today.

The 100 Coolest Cloud Computing Vendors Of 2016

The 2016 installment of CRN's 100 Coolest Cloud Computing Vendors highlights the best of the best in cloud infrastructure, platforms and development, security, storage and software.

The 2016 Data Center 100

Broken into five categories, the annual Data Center 100 highlights the providers that represent their respective fields with a combination of innovation, market share, market presence, buzz, technology capabilities and channel capabilities.

CRN's 2016 Managed Service Provider 500

CRN has assembled the 2016 Managed Service Provider 500, an annual list that recognizes North American solution providers with cutting-edge approaches to delivering managed services.

COLUMNS

What Ingram's Sale Says About The Distribution World

With news of Ingram Micro's plans to become part of China-based HNA Group comes speculation over what it means to the industry, government contracts serviced via Ingram, and to the distribution business as a whole.

Why Building An App Services Fortress Will Be Key To Winning In The New Channel Era

The strategic service provider era marks a major shift in the channel, one where the winners and losers will be determined by the ability to provide application modernization.

FEATURES

The New Channel Model: Rise Of The Strategic Service Provider

It's officially a new era in the channel, with business consulting and recurring revenue services taking precedence over project-based, on-premise technology procurement.

ForeScout Aims To Be The Most Channel-Friendly Company On The Block

CEO Michael DeCesare says ForeScout has seen 'absolutely crazy growth,' reaching more than $100 million in annual revenue this year – an increase of 50 percent year over year. Driving that growth, he says, are its 154 active channel partners.

The CRN Test Center's 2015 Products Of The Year

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